Types of Feedback
Sports people use and rely on feedback to improve and get better at their sport. There are six types of feedback. These are:
- Positive feedback
- Negative feedback
- Intrinsic feedback
- Extrinsic feedback
- Knowledge of Performance
- Knowledge of Results
Positive feedback helps to reinforce the learning of a skill as it allows the performer to know that they have completed something well.
Beginners to sport will need more positive feedback to encourage and motivate them.
A sporting example of positive feedback is a PE teacher saying ‘well done’ when a pass is performed correctly in netball.
Negative feedback involves giving information about an unsuccessful outcome. It can be used to build strategies that are more successful.
Elite athletes will be able to take negative feedback constructively but it may discourage others.
A sporting example of negative feedback is a coach telling a tennis player that their grip is incorrect.
This type of feedback happens within the performer. The athlete will be able to tell how a skill has been performed from the way it felt.
A sporting example of intrinsic feedback is a diver knowing whether they have performed a skill well and entered the water straight.
Extrinsic feedback is feedback that can be gained by watching back a performance or listening to feedback given by others such as coaches, teammates and viewers.
A sporting example of extrinsic feedback is a footballer watching back a penalty they taken in the game and critiquing it.
Knowledge of Performance
This is feedback about the movement that is taking, or has taken place, usually from a coach about an aspect of their technique. This is a form of extrinsic feedback.
A sporting example is a coach informing a sprinter that their arms are in the correct position at 90 degrees.
Knowledge of Results
This is feedback that can come from the performer seeing the result of their actions or from another person.
It is extremely important for the performer to know the result of their action as this allows them to learn more about the skill.
A sporting example is a goalkeeper saving a penalty after watching the player’s run up.